Robust GPS-based Timing for PMUs Based on Multi-receiver Position-Information-Aided Vector Tracking
Reliable and precise electrical wave measurements are essential to the stability and efficiency of a power system. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), also known as synchrophasors, are devices that provide precise synchronized votage magnitude and phase measurements at a high sampling frequency. Widely regarded as one of the most vital devices in monitoring and control for the future of power systems, PMUs rely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide the absolute time reference necessary to synchronize phasor measurements. The dependence of PMUs on GPS introduces new vulnerabilities to a power system utilizing PMUs. The unencrypted nature and low received SNR of civil GPS signals opens risks for milicious parties to broadcast falsified civil GPS signals with the intentions of altering the position or time solutions generated by the GPS receivers.
In this work, our goals are to provide robust GPS time transfer for PMUs and to rapidly detect malicious interference. Given that the GPS receivers used by PMUs are static, we employ position-information-aided (P.I.A.) vector tracking loops which have been shown to improve the accuracy of the time solutions, improved robustness against noise and jamming, as well as the ability to detect meaconing attacks. In this paper we extend the P.I.A. vector tracking to the multi-receiver case by connecting each of the receivers to the same stable atomic clock and processing the data in a multi-receiver P.I.A. vector tracking loop. Our tests show that this countermeasure can successfully detect meaconing, data-level spoofing, and signal-level spoofing attacks. Our approach also significantly improves robustness against jamming and accidental receiver errors.
This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
- The following copyright notice applies to all of the above items that appear in IEEE publications: "Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/publish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from IEEE."
- The following copyright notice applies to all of the above items that appear in ACM publications: "© ACM, effective the year of publication shown in the bibliographic information. This file is the author’s version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in the journal or proceedings indicated in the bibliographic data for each item."
- The following copyright notice applies to all of the above items that appear in IFAC publications: "Document is being reproduced under permission of the Copyright Holder. Use or reproduction of the Document is for informational or personal use only."