Autoscopy Jr.: Intrusion Detection for Embedded Control Systems
We first identify several issues with the original prototype, and present a new version of the program (dubbed Autoscopy Jr.) that uses trusted location lists to verify that control is coming from a known, trusted location inside our kernel. Although we encountered additional performance overhead when testing our new design, we developed a kernel profiler that allowed us to identify the probes responsible for this overhead and discard them, leaving us with a final probe list that generated less than 5% overhead on every one of our benchmark tests. Finally, we attempted to run Autoscopy Jr. on two specialized kernels (one with an optimized probing framework, and another with a hardening patch installed), finding that the former did not produce enough performance benefits to preclude using our profiler, and that the latter required a different method of scanning for indirect functions for Autoscopy Jr. to operate.
We argue that Autoscopy Jr. is indeed a feasible intrusion detection system for embedded control systems, as it can adapt easily to a variety of system architectures and allows us to intelligently balance security and performance on these critical devices.
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