Synchrophasor Data Quality

Industry Collaborators: 

American Transmission Company (ATC)
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)
National Instruments

Research Summary: 

Synchrophasor data are envisioned to be a key enabler for real-time power grid situational awareness and control.

More than 2,000 phasor measurement units (PMUs) have been installed across North America and are generating synchrophasor data.  However, the efforts to aggregate and process the synchrophasor data to produce consistently available, reliable, and actionable information have been challenging.  Power system operators widely report synchrophasor data availability and trustworthiness issues as significant obstacles to realizing the envisioned capabilities and benefits.  This activity classified synchrophasor data error sources, investigated methods of screening synchrophasor data for power state changes, and worked to develop a library of event signatures. The Activity spearheaded the effort to complete a Non-Disclosure Agreement with American Transmission Corporation (ATC).  ATC provided archived synchrophasor data for 2013 from 100+ PMUs installed on its system; the protected data resides in the TCIPG Testbed, available for research purposes – including the activity’s synchrophasor data investigations.  The team actively participated in and contributed to North American Synchrophasor Initiative (NASPI) working group meetings and research activities.  We wrote signal-processing algorithms to investigate methods for screening synchrophasor data in real-time for transmission system event signatures; this also included developing an application for visualizing a power system’s state using synchrophasor data on a Google Map Application Programming Interface (API).  We built and tested a single-phase, “open-box” PMU and integrated it with an uninterruptible power supply to enable transient measurements during power outages on the power distribution system; synchrophasor data are buffered and transferred hourly to openPDC (Grid Protection Alliance’s phasor data concentrator application) on a remote Linux web server via an FTP connection.  The activity’s PMU design evolved to reduce per-unit cost from ~$1,000 to ~$350. The activity also investigated ways to visualize the power system cyber security relationships detailed in NISTIR 7628, Guidelines for Smart Grid Cyber Security; the activity developed an on-line NISTIR 7628 Structural Guidelines Visualization Tool application using Java and HTML-5 incorporating the 2014 updated NISTIR 7628 Guidelines.